January 1, 1970

The Place and River Names of West Lindsey

By Angus Townley

Crowle (British)

836 Croglea (Crowle, Worcesters.) : Birch (1) 583
871 Crogdene (now Croydon) : Birch (2) 146
1086 Crul Crule 31 fisheries : D. B., 82, 192-3
1130 Croilanda Abbas de Pipe, 84
1158-9 Croil . Pipe (1884) 65
1190 Crueil, Homines de. Crocil . Pipe (1) 86. 101
1202 Cruilland marisc Croilland . Oblata. 175, 183
1208 Cruil Rad de ‘ Plac., 67
1212 Carul, Abbas de Seleby : Feod , 193, T N., 345
1224-30 Crokeleg, Heredes de Ricardi de ; in Insula de Haxiholm : Feod., 1462
Hy. 3 Crokelega, Ricards de, Haxiholme : Exchq. (2) 737
1276 Crull, Crul . H. R., 339, 372 1291 Crule, Crul Taxatio, 75
1314 Crulle un. piscar . Inq Q. D., 239
1441 Crull man. mercat. et feria mutat. Ch. R., 200
1545 Crule, St. Oswald of : Linc. Wills (1) 25
1535 Crull, Crowle : Valor (4) 138
1538 Croole, a praty wood at (Leland) : Dunston, 18
1586 Carool : Colyton Reg., L. N. Q., Oct., 1913
1590 Croell, vicaria . Church, 155
1602 Croole Church, 236
1639 Crowel Cassi : Aerlebout’s Map
1654 Crowle two Wynde Milnes, Crull Ing : Isle
1789 Crowle on the Dun : Camden, 280
1841 Crowle, Scholey, Marm. ; Smack Farm : Poll., 76-8
1858 Crowle, St Oswald : Read, 251

ln ancient times Crowle stood on the Don amidst river, pool and fen waters and in 1086 Domesday Book mentions its 31 fisheries. Its British name would be almost the same as the Anglo-British Crokeleg, croc, crok or croke describing the Don and le later leg its fen pools with meadow land attached. ln Anglian times Crokeleg mutated naturally to Crogleg, corresponding to Crogdene, the early form of Croydon describing this creek head of the Wandle river running from the church to join that from the Carsalton pools. In Norman times Crokeleg had become mutated and compressed to Crueil, Crioill, Croeil, Croil and finally to Crowle, similar forms occurring in Cruilland and Croilland but in this name land has sufferred no contraction, while in Crowle Anglian leg, ”meadow land” has reverted to British le, the whole name becoming a monosyllable.

The Tower Geological Map shows not only the stream running past Crowle but the alluvium of its ancient pools, including one belonging to Tetley near Crowle. The primary British word croc “a stream,” occurs in several Lindsey place- names, such as Croxby and Croxton on the Wolds, and is further discussed in the Crosby section. The Danish variant represented by Carul of the Book of Fees, and Carool of the Colyton Registers, has had no influence on the modern name which has come direct from the British form. Carul and Carool come from kjarr ul, ”the carr at the pool stream.” The second theme occurs in Hoole in Lancashire, originally Hulle, but in names of two themes, as in Carul and Carool, the aspirate is omitted. Notice Crowel Cassi; this causeway ran across the deep fens from Crowle to Althorpe. The spelling Crowel also occurs in Worcestershire Crowle, standing on a branch of the Avon.