April 14, 2012

Pre-Enclosure Field Names in Crowle and Ealand

By Angus Townley

High Breaking Whong and Caugars are but two of the names given to areas of land in the Manorial Plan and Survey of 1738.

The 1738 Manorial Plan and Survey give an excellent insight into the fields at Crowle pre-enclosure.

The open field system had been the method of farming since medieval times. The large open fields were split up into strip which were farmed by different people. The land was owned, mostly as Copyhold, thought some, the Demesne Lands, were owned by the Lord of the Manor  and rented out. A very small amount of land in Crowle in 1738 was freehold.

The two large open fields were subdivided into smaller sections which were referred to as Furlongs and each of these furlongs consisted of a number of strips — all varying in length and width. In the survey the owner for each strip is indicated with its area and the rent due to the Manor of Crowle.

In the survey each of the Furlongs is referred to by a different name. The spellings of the different furlongs varies from source to source. I have used the spellings from the Terrier – the book that lists each of the strips in numerical order.

Are there any areas still referred to by the original furlongs names? I suspect not, as in 1822 once the enclosure awards were completed the open fields were completely enclosed – though I note that on the enclosure plan Field Road is labelled as Caugars Road, which harks back to the original furlong name on the 1738 manorial survey.

In addition to the open fields there were a large number of enclosed fields which were referred to as  Closes – a separate Post is being prepared to look at these.

Crowle Field including Havery Croft – 530 acres -930 strips divided into 45 furlongs varying in size from 4 strips to 108.
Interesting furlong names include;
Cougars Furlong – possibly a personal name relating to the Caulking of boats.
Furlong East side Gallows Tree
Haghars Cross Furlong – possibly a personal name referring to occupation of a hedger (OE haha ‘hedge’)
High Breaking Whong Furlong – Whong is from Old Norse vangr ‘an in- field, an enclosed part of an in-field’. Possibly “breaking” could indicate ON brekky ‘a slope’.
Seven Lands Furlong – land is another term for a field strip so this is a furlong of only 7 strips.
Swallow Hurn Furlong
Tenters Furlong – This might indicate that this was where cloth was hung out to dry.
Riggs Furlong – the largest furlongs located on the North Side of Eastoft Road.
Ealand Great Field, incl. Takes Field – 102 acres – divided into 13 furlongs – 202 strips.
Interesting furlong names include;
Lidgat Lands – Lidyate, A gate at the entrance of a village used to prevent cattle from straying into the open-fields
Orchard end Lands
Thakes Field – This outlying part of the open field is remembered by Hakes Lane.
The Half-penny Butts by Green Hill
The Scuttuck Furlong – Scuttock is a dialect word for the guillemot.


Field Furlong Number of Strips
Crowle Field Buits Furlong 31
By Dunlings Croft 2
Caugars Furlong 25
Ducar Butts Furlong 9
Four Parcels into the Pits 6
Furlong butting on the furlong at Carr Lane end 22
Furlong by the Townside 57
Furlong on the East side Gallows Tree 5
Furlong shooting on the Gravel Pit 13
Haghars Cross Furlong 20
Hall mere Furrows Furlong 24
High Breaking Whong Furlong 22
Hollow Crofts Furlong 17
Long Tuft Furlong 16
Low Breaking Whong Furlong 25
Low Field Furlong 7
Low Field Great Furlong 20
Middle Furlong 26
Muck Thorne Furlong 21
North side Pithole 4
Nudswell Furlong 34
Ringlands Furlong 25
Ringlands Lease 29
Seven Lands Furlong 6
Short furlong on the East side Seven Lands 15
Short Tufts Furlong 6
Swallow Hurn Furlong 8
Swarth Furrow Furlong 30
Tenters Furlong 5
The Cartgate Mere Furlong 8
The Furlong at Carr Lane End 7
The Furlong behind Clarks Close 21
The Furlong below Foster Close 11
The Furlong butting on the Leases 13
The Furlong called Hoult Lane Leases 9
The Furlong Called the Red Cliff 22
The Furlong called the Riggs 108
The Furlong on the South side the Cliff 83
The Furlong Shooting on Gravell Pitt 20
The Furlong South side Mill Road 23
The Green Hill Furlong 8
The Houts under the Hail 16
The Little Furlong by Clarks Corner 14
Whitton Bark Furlong 37
Total Crowle Field
Ealand Great Field Garth end Lands 7
Lidgat Lands 6
Lower Furlong 23
Lower Short Furlong 22
North Tofts Field 13
Orchard end Lands 32
Orchard end Lands – This piece also called the Butts 1
Thakes Field 15
The Field called New Close 8
The Half-penny Butts by Green Hill 5
The Scuttuck Furlong 10
The Style Hill 16
Upper Short Furlong 44
Total Ealand Great Field

Edward Peacock’s “Glossary of Words Used in the Wappentakes of manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire” (Published by the the English Dialect Society, 1889) provides some exlanation for the terms used in the names of furlongs.

Butt-hills – Mounds which have been used for butts in archery.

Butts – The ends of ridges in an open field which abutted on other ridges that were at right angles to them.

Close – As enclosure, whether grass or under plough, as distinguished from a field, which is unenclosed land under plough.

Croft – A small plot of enclosed land adjoining a homestead.

Field – The correct meaning of this is unenclosed land under plough.

Furlong – (1) The boundary upon which the separate lots abut in an open field.
(2) The separate lots in an unenclosed field.

 Gare, Gareing – A term used in ploughing to denote a triangular piece of ground in a field or close which has to be ploughed with furrows of differing length.

Hale – (1) A gareing in an enclosure or open field, that is an angular piece that has to be ploughed separately.
(2) A bank or strip of grass which separates two persons’ land in an open field

Headland – The part of an open field or enclosure where the horses turn round, and which is consequently ploughed the last and in transverse direction to the rest of the land. In open fields these headlands are often boundaries of property, and therefore headland is sometimes, though rarely, used as an equivalent for boundary.

Home-yard, Home Close, Home field – A croft, garden, paddock or grass close near a homestead.

Ley, Leases – Unenclosed grass land. It seems to mean land that has once been ploughed and afterwards laid down to grass.

Lidyate – A gate between ploughed land and meadow, or pasture and meadow, in an open field. A gate at the entrance of a village used to hinder cattle from straying from the unenclosed fields or commons amongst the houses.

Meer – A mark or boundary of any kind between one person’s land and another’s or between one manor, parish, or township and another.

Piece – (4) A portion of land in an open field, sometimes a small enclosure.

Pinder – A manorial or parochial officer whose duty it is to empound cattle.

Stinted – A common is said to be stinted when the manor court has put a limit to the number of cattle which may be depastured on the common by each common-right holder.

Swathe – (1) The width covered by a scythe in mowing.
(2) The row or stretch of grass or corn left by the mower.
(3) A measure of grass land in open pasture. Such a piece is commonly 6.5 feet wide.

Toft, Toftstead –  A piece of land on which a cottage, having a common-right, stands or has stood.