Pre-Enclosure Field Names in Crowle and Ealand
High Breaking Whong and Caugars are but two of the names given to areas of land in the Manorial Plan and Survey of 1738.
The 1738 Manorial Plan and Survey give an excellent insight into the fields at Crowle pre-enclosure.
The open field system had been the method of farming since medieval times. The large open fields were split up into strip which were farmed by different people. The land was owned, mostly as Copyhold, thought some, the Demesne Lands, were owned by the Lord of the Manor and rented out. A very small amount of land in Crowle in 1738 was freehold.
The two large open fields were subdivided into smaller sections which were referred to as Furlongs and each of these furlongs consisted of a number of strips — all varying in length and width. In the survey the owner for each strip is indicated with its area and the rent due to the Manor of Crowle.
In the survey each of the Furlongs is referred to by a different name. The spellings of the different furlongs varies from source to source. I have used the spellings from the Terrier – the book that lists each of the strips in numerical order.
Are there any areas still referred to by the original furlongs names? I suspect not, as in 1822 once the enclosure awards were completed the open fields were completely enclosed – though I note that on the enclosure plan Field Road is labelled as Caugars Road, which harks back to the original furlong name on the 1738 manorial survey.
In addition to the open fields there were a large number of enclosed fields which were referred to as Closes – a separate Post is being prepared to look at these.
|Field||Furlong||Number of Strips|
|Crowle Field||Buits Furlong||31|
|By Dunlings Croft||2|
|Ducar Butts Furlong||9|
|Four Parcels into the Pits||6|
|Furlong butting on the furlong at Carr Lane end||22|
|Furlong by the Townside||57|
|Furlong on the East side Gallows Tree||5|
|Furlong shooting on the Gravel Pit||13|
|Haghars Cross Furlong||20|
|Hall mere Furrows Furlong||24|
|High Breaking Whong Furlong||22|
|Hollow Crofts Furlong||17|
|Long Tuft Furlong||16|
|Low Breaking Whong Furlong||25|
|Low Field Furlong||7|
|Low Field Great Furlong||20|
|Muck Thorne Furlong||21|
|North side Pithole||4|
|Seven Lands Furlong||6|
|Short furlong on the East side Seven Lands||15|
|Short Tufts Furlong||6|
|Swallow Hurn Furlong||8|
|Swarth Furrow Furlong||30|
|The Cartgate Mere Furlong||8|
|The Furlong at Carr Lane End||7|
|The Furlong behind Clarks Close||21|
|The Furlong below Foster Close||11|
|The Furlong butting on the Leases||13|
|The Furlong called Hoult Lane Leases||9|
|The Furlong Called the Red Cliff||22|
|The Furlong called the Riggs||108|
|The Furlong on the South side the Cliff||83|
|The Furlong Shooting on Gravell Pitt||20|
|The Furlong South side Mill Road||23|
|The Green Hill Furlong||8|
|The Houts under the Hail||16|
|The Little Furlong by Clarks Corner||14|
|Whitton Bark Furlong||37|
|Total Crowle Field||930|
|Ealand Great Field||Garth end Lands||7|
|Lower Short Furlong||22|
|North Tofts Field||13|
|Orchard end Lands||32|
|Orchard end Lands – This piece also called the Butts||1|
|The Field called New Close||8|
|The Half-penny Butts by Green Hill||5|
|The Scuttuck Furlong||10|
|The Style Hill||16|
|Upper Short Furlong||44|
|Total Ealand Great Field||202|
Edward Peacock’s “Glossary of Words Used in the Wappentakes of manley and Corringham, Lincolnshire” (Published by the the English Dialect Society, 1889) provides some exlanation for the terms used in the names of furlongs.
Butt-hills – Mounds which have been used for butts in archery.
Butts – The ends of ridges in an open field which abutted on other ridges that were at right angles to them.
Close – As enclosure, whether grass or under plough, as distinguished from a field, which is unenclosed land under plough.
Croft – A small plot of enclosed land adjoining a homestead.
Field – The correct meaning of this is unenclosed land under plough.
Furlong – (1) The boundary upon which the separate lots abut in an open field.
(2) The separate lots in an unenclosed field.
Gare, Gareing – A term used in ploughing to denote a triangular piece of ground in a field or close which has to be ploughed with furrows of differing length.
Hale – (1) A gareing in an enclosure or open field, that is an angular piece that has to be ploughed separately.
(2) A bank or strip of grass which separates two persons’ land in an open field
Headland – The part of an open field or enclosure where the horses turn round, and which is consequently ploughed the last and in transverse direction to the rest of the land. In open fields these headlands are often boundaries of property, and therefore headland is sometimes, though rarely, used as an equivalent for boundary.
Home-yard, Home Close, Home field – A croft, garden, paddock or grass close near a homestead.
Ley, Leases – Unenclosed grass land. It seems to mean land that has once been ploughed and afterwards laid down to grass.
Lidyate – A gate between ploughed land and meadow, or pasture and meadow, in an open field. A gate at the entrance of a village used to hinder cattle from straying from the unenclosed fields or commons amongst the houses.
Meer – A mark or boundary of any kind between one person’s land and another’s or between one manor, parish, or township and another.
Piece – (4) A portion of land in an open field, sometimes a small enclosure.
Pinder – A manorial or parochial officer whose duty it is to empound cattle.
Stinted – A common is said to be stinted when the manor court has put a limit to the number of cattle which may be depastured on the common by each common-right holder.
Swathe – (1) The width covered by a scythe in mowing.
(2) The row or stretch of grass or corn left by the mower.
(3) A measure of grass land in open pasture. Such a piece is commonly 6.5 feet wide.
Toft, Toftstead – A piece of land on which a cottage, having a common-right, stands or has stood.